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Committee "field officers" enforce strict closing of shops at prayer time, segregation of the sexes, prohibition of the sale and consumption of alcohol, driving of motor vehicles by women, and other social restrictions. Prayer attendance, which was once enforced by flogging, is no longer.[251]. [2] The US State Department has estimated that over the past four decades concerns in Riyadh have directed at least $10bn (£6bn) to select charitable foundations toward the subversion of mainstream Sunni Islam by Wahhabism. In May 1962, a conference in Mecca organized by Saudis discussed ways to combat secularism and socialism. Adherents of Wahhabism are favourable to derivation of new legal rulings (ijtihad) so long as it is true to the essence of the Quran, Sunnah and understanding of the salaf, and they do not regard this as bid'ah (innovation) . [59] However, critics complain these terms imply non-Wahhabis are not monotheists or Muslims. Cyril Glasse's New Encyclopedia of Islam states that "strictly speaking", Wahhabis "do not see themselves as belonging to any school,"[293] [375], The transnational Lebanon Al-Ahbash movement uses takfir against Wahhabi and Salafi leaders. According to a doctrine known as al-wala' wa al-bara' (literally, "loyalty and disassociation"), Abd al-Wahhab argued that it was "imperative for Muslims not to befriend, ally themselves with, or imitate non-Muslims or heretical Muslims", and that this "enmity and hostility of Muslims toward non-Muslims and heretical had to be visible and unequivocal. A Muslim must present a bayah, or oath of allegiance, to a Muslim ruler during his lifetime to ensure his redemption after death. Women are now allowed to drive and travel independently; non-Muslims are permitted to consume alcohol and pork. Movie theaters and driving by women are forbidden, except at the ARAMCO compound in eastern Saudi, populated by workers for the company that provides almost all the government's revenue. "[360], The Sunni conventional scholars for centuries rejected Ibn Taymiyah's ideas however Wahhabism has made this controversial scholar its central figure. The Saudi Grand Mufti, on the other hand has declared football permissible (halal). [2][9] [279][280], This disagreement between Wahhabism and Sunni Orthodoxy (adherents of one of the four schools of jurisprudence) over the definition of worship and monotheism has remained much the same since 1740, according to David Commins,[276] although, according to Saudi writer and religious television show host Abdul Aziz Qassim, as of 2014, "there are changes happening within the [Wahhabi] doctrine and among its followers. [164] Tens of billions of US dollars of this money were spent on books, media, schools, scholarships for students (from primary to post-graduate), fellowships and subsidies to reward journalists, academics and Islamic scholars, the building of hundreds of Islamic centers and universities, and over one thousand schools and one thousand mosques. In Saudi Arabia the strict religious atmosphere of Wahhabi doctrine is visible in the conformity in dress, public deportment, and public prayer,[221] and makes its presence felt by the wide freedom of action of the "religious police", clerics in mosques, teachers in schools, and judges (who are religious legal scholars) in Saudi courts. These arguments were specifically rejected as heretical by the Wahhabi leader at the time. [250] After vigorous debate Wahhabi religious authorities in Saudi Arabia allowed the use of paper money (in 1951), the abolition of slavery (in 1962), education of females (1964), and use of television (1965). [281], Whether the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab included the need for social renewal and "plans for socio-religious reform of society" in the Arabian Peninsula, rather than simply a return to "ritual correctness and moral purity", is disputed. [250], The only other country "whose native population is Wahhabi and that adheres to the Wahhabi creed", is the small gulf monarchy of Qatar,[260][261] whose version of Wahhabism is notably less strict. Every Saudi ruler since Bin Sa’ud has followed his predecessor’s domestic policy by ensuring that the religious establishment remains in significant control of public affairs. Nonetheless, its massive popularity in Iran and its overthrow of a pro-American secular monarchy generated enormous enthusiasm among pious Sunni, not just Shia Muslims around the world. [285] He rejected deference to past juridical opinion (taqlid) in favor of independent reasoning (ijtihad), and opposed using local customs. Concerned that Saddam Hussein might push south and seize its own oil fields, Saudis requested military support from the US and allowed tens of thousands of US troops to be based in the Kingdom to fight Iraq. [145] Missionaries were sent to West Africa, where the League funded schools, distributed religious literature, and gave scholarships to attend Saudi religious universities. Tens of thousands of volunteers[173] and several billion dollars also went in support of the jihad against the atheist communist regime governing Afghanistan. [108][109], After this, the Wahhabis also massacred the male population and enslaved the women and children of the predominantly Sunni city of Ta'if in Hejaz in 1803. [254] The warriors of the Ikhwan Wahhabi religious militia wore a white turban in place of an agal. The Brotherhood dealt in what one author (Robert Lacey) called "change-promoting concepts" like social justice and anticolonialism, and gave "a radical, but still apparently safe, religious twist" to the Wahhabi values Saudi students "had absorbed in childhood". The biographies of Al-Baghdadi and others in ISIS leadership positions show how they’ve absorbed the Wahhabi doctrine and mastered its details. The mosque is frequently listed among examples of Qatar's efforts to export Wahhabism, their extreme and often intolerant version of Islam, throughout Europe. Despite its limitations, the study highlights an ugly undercurrent in modern Islamic discourse that American Muslims must openly confront. [318], Wahhabis share the belief of Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Islamic dominion over politics and government and the importance of dawah (proselytizing or preaching of Islam) not just towards non-Muslims but towards erroring Muslims. [210][211], A widely circulated but discredited apocryphal description of the founding of Wahhabism[212][213] [395][396], Some of the initiatives of the Cultural Islamic Center Sesto San Giovanni in Italy, funded by Qatar Charity, have also raised concerns due to its ties to Wahhabbism. The danger that ISIS poses for the international community is that it preaches and institutes the same religious teachings of Abdul-Wahhab, carrying aspirations of creating an Islamic state that has been tried for nearly two centuries since the creation of the first Saudi state. [58], Many scholars and critics distinguish between Wahhabi and Salafi. [28], MbS's pronouncements, as well as an international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny (funded by the government of the United Arab Emirates) where "200 Muslim scholars from Egypt, Russia, Syria, Sudan, Jordan, and Europe reject[ed] Saudi Arabia's doctrine",[209] have been called a "frontal assault on Wahhabism" (as well as an assault on other conservative "interpretations of Islam, such as Salafism and Deobandism"). Among the criticism, or comments made by critics, of the Wahhabi movement are: The first people to oppose Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab were his father, Abd al-Wahhab and his brother, Salman Ibn Abd al-Wahhab who was an Islamic scholar and qadi. Little did they realize that the events that followed would set a precedent for the future of the region. The Wahhabi mission started as a revivalist movement in the remote, arid region of Najd. [111] In 1818 they defeated Al-Saud, leveling the capital Diriyah, executing the Al-Saud emir and exiling the emirate's political and religious leadership,[97][112] and otherwise unsuccessfully attempted to stamp out not just the House of Saud but the Wahhabi mission as well. Worldwide, Saudis run sponsored mosques and Islamic schools teaching the Wahhabi version of Sunni Islam that labels Shia Muslims, Sufis, Christians, Jews and others as either apostates or infidels, thus paving a way for armed jihad against them by any means necessary till their death or submission to the Wahhabi doctrine. [27] (As of 2017 changes to Saudi religious policy by Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman have led some to suggest that "Islamists throughout the world will have to follow suit or risk winding up on the wrong side of orthodoxy". [104], One of their most noteworthy and controversial attacks was on Karbala in 1802. The Consortium Against Terrorist Finance (CATF) said that the mosque has a history of affiliation and cooperation with extremists and terrorists. [citation needed], This Saudi/Wahhabi religious triumph further stood out in the Muslim world because many Muslim-majority states (and the PLO) were allied with the Soviet Union and did not support the Afghan jihad. Saudi leadership sought and received Wahhabi fatawa to approve the military removal of the insurgents and after that to execute them,[183] but Wahhabi clerics also fell under suspicion for involvement with the insurgents. [176] Its leader (Ruhollah Khomeini) preached that monarchy was against Islam and America was Islam's enemy, and called for the overthrow of al-Saud family. [58] Another preferred term was simply "Muslims" since their creed is "pure Islam". [26], Not least in importance was the money Saudi Arabia earned from exporting oil. [205] In March 2014 the Saudi government declared the Brotherhood a "terrorist organization". Therefore, the House of Saud is constantly oscillating between condemning ISIS, Al-Qaeda, and any other Sunni militant groups that live by the creed of Wahhabism (that is essentially one-in-the-same with the religious authority in Saudi Arabia), appealing to the global community that Saudi Arabia is not a state that supports ISIS’s ideology, and not upsetting the religious Ash-Shaykh establishment in Saudi Arabia. CNN Interview", "Saudi Arabia, Elephant in the Living Room", "For Conservative Muslims, Goal of Isolation a Challenge", "Islam and the West: A Conversation with Bernard Lewis (transcript)", "Imam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, Ibn Saud information resource", "The First Ikhwan Rebellion 1927–1928. Hamid Algar lists three "elements" Wahhabism and Salafism had in common. The relationship between the ulama (political elite) and muftis (religious authorities) has been honored and respected as the royal family has allowed the appointment of a member of the House of Shaykh to be the Grand Mufti since 1744. – Ibn 'Abd al Wahhab and his successors preach that theirs is the one true form of Islam. Thirdly, ISIS controls oil fields that are estimated to be making them $3 million per day on the black market, and the toppling of the Iraqi bank in Mosul gave them an inheritance of nearly $400 million in cash. [186][187][188], In August 1990 Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait. Abu'l-Fayd Ahmad ibn Abi Abdallah al-Siddiq al-Ghimmari. Yet public opinion of ISIS in the kingdom remains very empathetic. [61], Other terms Wahhabis have been said to use and/or prefer include ahl al-hadith ("people of hadith"), Salafi Da'wa or al-da'wa ila al-tawhid[62] . [243] He argued that the criterion for one's standing as either a Muslim or an unbeliever was correct worship as an expression of belief in one God ... any act or statement that indicates devotion to a being other than God is to associate another creature with God's power, and that is tantamount to idolatry (shirk). "[397], Munich Forum for Islam (MFI), also known as the Center for Islam in Europe-Munich (ZIEM), was another controversial initiative largely financed by the Wahhabi Gulf country of Qatar. The country sponsors a film festival, has "world-class art museums", hosts Al Jazeera news service, will hold the 2022 football World Cup, and has no religious force that polices public morality. alleges that a British agent named Hempher was responsible for the creation of Wahhabism. In its wake, the World Muslim League was established. Battle of Medina (1812), Ottoman Army regains Medina from Salafis. Please read the, Naming controversy: Wahhabis, Muwahhidun, and Salafis, Destruction of Islam's early historical sites, Wiktorowicz, Quintan. [171][172], Between 1982 and 1992 an estimated 35,000 individual Muslim volunteers went to Afghanistan to fight the Soviets and their Afghan regime. or "puritan(ical)";[4][5] as an Islamic "reform movement" to restore "pure monotheistic worship" (tawhid) by devotees;[6][7] and as a "deviant sectarian movement",[7] "vile sect"[8] and a distortion of Islam by its detractors. To enable Verizon Media and our partners to process your personal data select 'I agree', or select 'Manage settings' for more information and to manage your choices. [371], Opposition against wahabbism started in South Asia in 19th century which was led by prominent Islamic scholers of the time most notable of them was Maulana Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi.By the late 19th century it was led by Maulana Ahmed Raza Khan, whose extensive written refutation of wahabbism along with active opposition of wahabbism by his disciples and other sunni Ulama(Islamic scholers) became a movement. [64] Early Salafis referred to themselves simply as "Muslims", believing the neighboring Ottoman Caliphate was al-dawlah al-kufriyya (a heretical nation) and its self-professed Muslim inhabitants actually non-Muslim. [93], When Muhammad started preaching the manhaj of the Salaf-as-saliheen in the Ottoman-controlled Hejaz, where veneration of saints and superstitions became prevalent, he was initially rejected and called "deviant". Once such people have received the call to "true Islam", understood it and then rejected it, their blood and treasure are forfeit. Construction on the mosque began in 2009 and was completed in 2012. Defense of the Muslim Lands, the First Obligation after Faith. Whoever championed his message, ibn Abdul Wahhab promised, "will, by means of it, rule the lands and men". Not only is wine forbidden, but so are "all intoxicating drinks and other stimulants, including tobacco." The fact based account is presented in the book "The Wahhabi Myth" by Haneef James Oliver. [67], Many, such as writer Quinton Wiktorowicz, urge use of the term Salafi, maintaining that "one would be hard pressed to find individuals who refer to themselves as Wahhabis or organizations that use 'Wahhabi' in their title, or refer to their ideology in this manner (unless they are speaking to a Western audience that is unfamiliar with Islamic terminology, and even then usage is limited and often appears as 'Salafi/Wahhabi')". [100] [194][195] (This movement is sometimes called neo-Wahhabi or neo-salafi. "[392] Qatar has reportedly sent Jewish professors back to America,[393] and students attending American universities in Qatar are reportedly required to dress in a manner respectful to Wahhabism. "ISIS' Harsh Brand of Islam Is Rooted in Austere Saudi Creed", The Destruction of Holy Sites in Mecca and Medina, "Mohammad Javad Zarif: Let Us Rid the World of Wahhabism", "September 11 in History: A Watershed Moment? There has traditionally been a recognized head of the Wahhabi "religious estate", often a member of Al ash-Sheikh (a descendant of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab) or related to another religious head. [165][166] With his life in jeopardy, Abdul-Wahhab traveled to a small market town called Dir’iyyah, which at the time was under the control of one Muhammad Bin Sa’ud. But, later his call to dawah became extremely popular. According to American scholar Christopher M. Blanchard,[75] Wahhabism refers to "a conservative Islamic creed centered in and emanating from Saudi Arabia", while Salafiyya is "a more general puritanical Islamic movement that has developed independently at various times and in various places in the Islamic world". [222], Wahhabism is noted for its policy of "compelling its own followers and other Muslims strictly to observe the religious duties of Islam, such as the five prayers", and for "enforcement of public morals to a degree not found elsewhere". [69][70] Ingrid Mattson argues that "'Wahhbism' is not a sect. They emphasize reliance on the literal meaning of the Quran and hadith, rejecting rationalistic theology (kalam). In 1803 and 1804 the Saudis captured Mecca and Madinah and demolished various tombs of Ahl al-Bayt and Sahabah, ancient monuments, ruins according to Wahhabis, they "removed a number of what were seen as sources or possible gateways to polytheism or shirk" – such as the tomb of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. [218][219] Unlike other schools of Sunnism, Wahhabis admonishes to ground Islamic principles solely on the Quran and Hadith,[220] rejecting much material derived within Islamic culture. The House of Saud will most likely never allow the House of Shaykh to lose its religious authority in the Kingdom because of the need for the House of Shaykh to legitimize the power the royal family possesses. Many buildings associated with early Islam, including mazaar, mausoleums and other artifacts have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia by Wahhabis from the early 19th century through the present day. al-Sayyid Yusuf al-Rifa`i and al-Sayyid al-Habib 'Alawi al-Haddad, Ibid., "Islamic conference in Chechnya: Why Sunnis are disassociating themselves from Salafists". Wahhabism has been associated with the practice of takfir (labeling Muslims who disagree with their doctrines as apostates). [268][269] Athari theology is characterized by reliance on the zahir (apparent or literal) meaning of the Quran and hadith, and opposition to the rational argumentation in matters of belief favored by Ash'ari and Maturidi theology. In 2016 Barelvis banned Wahhabis from their mosques nationwide. The term Wahhabi(sm) is often used polemically and adherents commonly reject its use, preferring to be called Salafi or muwahhid,[10][11][12] claiming to emphasize the principle of tawhid[13] (the "uniqueness" and "unity" of God)[14] or monotheism, dismissing other Muslims as practising shirk (idolatry). ', harvnb error: multiple targets (5×): CITEREFKepel2002 (, Natana J. Delong-Bas, "Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad", (Oxford University Press: 2004), p. 279, Jonathan A.C. Brown, "Faithful Dissenters: Sunni Skepticism about the Miracles of Saints,", Khaled Abou El Fadl, "9/11 and the Muslim Transformation." [82], However, in the last couple of decades of the twentieth century several crises worked to erode Wahhabi "credibility" in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Muslim world – the November 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque by militants; the deployment of US troops in Saudi Arabia during the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq; and the 9/11 2001 al-Qaeda attacks on New York and Washington. In 1979, 400–500 Islamist insurgents, using smuggled weapons and supplies, took over the Grand mosque in Mecca, called for an overthrow of the monarchy, denounced the Wahhabi ulama as royal puppets, and announced the arrival of the Mahdi of "end time". Ibn Taymiyyah’s belief that, “misguided Muslims who do not abide by his interpretation of Shari’ah law should be fought as if they were infidels,” is a foundational principle of Al-Qaeda and ISIS alike. an informed awareness of the political and socio-economic crises confronting the Muslim world. As ISIS has garnered further international publicity and continues to become a security concern for the West and Middle East, it has also created a situation where Saudi Arabia’s image is becoming severely damaged. However "unrepresentative" bin Laden's global jihad was of Islam in general and Wahhabi Islam in particular, its prominence in headline news took Wahhabi Islam across the spectrum from revival and reform to global jihad. ", "The Saga of "Hempher", Purported British Spy", Saudi schools promoting hatred and violence on non-believers —, Saudi Arabia's religious police 'contains extremists', "A special day for mothers: Difference of opinion", "Many celebrate Valentine's Day in secret", A Saudi Woman Is Threatened After Tweeting About Beards, "The Wahhabi war against 'infidels' and flowers", "An Unprecedented Uproar Over Saudi Religious Police", "Wahhabism vs. Wahhabism: Qatar Challenges Saudi Arabia", "Wahhabism: Is it a Factor in the Spread of Global Terrorism? [133], Over the course of its history, however, Wahhabism has become more accommodating towards the outside world. [397] CATF notes that Qatar Charity "was named as a major financial conduit for al-Qaeda in judicial proceedings following the attacks on the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania", supported al-Qaeda operatives in Northern Mali, and was "heavily involved in Syria. [136] The revivalists and Wahhabis shared a common interest in Ibn Taymiyya's thought, the permissibility of ijtihad, and the need to purify worship practices of innovation. [137] In the 1920s, Rashid Rida, a pioneer Salafist whose periodical al-Manar was widely read in the Muslim world, published an "anthology of Wahhabi treatises", and a work praising the Ibn Saud as "the savior of the Haramayn [the two holy cities] and a practitioner of authentic Islamic rule". [59][60] Additionally, the terms Muwahhidun and Unitarians are associated with other sects, both extant and extinct. After the discovery of petroleum near the Persian Gulf in 1939, it had access to oil export revenues, revenue that grew to billions of dollars. The House of Saud continued to maintain its politico-religious alliance with the Wahhabi sect through the waxing and waning of its own political fortunes over the next 150 years, through to its eventual proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, and then afterwards, on into modern times. According to Edward Mortimer, it was imitation of past judicial opinion in the face of clear contradictory evidence from hadith or Qur'anic text that Ibn Abd al-Wahhab condemned. According to counter-terrorism scholar Thomas F. Lynch III, Sunni extremists perpetrated about 700 terror attacks killing roughly 7,000 people from 1981 to 2006. This all has created a deleterious consequence for the House of Saud. [335] What connection, if any, there is between Wahhabism and the Jihadi Salafis such as Al-Qaeda who carried out these attacks, is disputed. A Brief History of the Deal at the Heart of Saudi Society. [327], Its largesse funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith", throughout the Muslim World, according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian. or "blending" with it. [247][248], Despite this strictness, senior Wahhabi scholars of Islam in the Saudi kingdom have made exceptions in ruling on what is haram. In order to conceptualize the mentality of ISIS and its motivation, look no further than inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to examine how its puritanical Wahhabi doctrine has enabled the ideology of ISIS and terrorist groups alike, and will continue to do so for potential Islamic extremist groups in the future. The rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has become somewhat of a revelation to the international community over the last several months. [125], In al-Hasa, efforts to stop the observance of Shia religious holidays and replace teaching and preaching duties of Shia clerics with Wahhabi, lasted only a year. DeLong-Bas also maintains that Ibn Abd al-Wahhab waged jihad only in defense against aggressive opponents: CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. Information about your device and internet connection, including your IP address, Browsing and search activity while using Verizon Media websites and apps.

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