mosquée okba ibn nafaa kairouan

A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 metres in width and 37.5 metres' depth. The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. C’est  le plus ancien édifice religieux islamique érigé dans l’Occident musulman. Il construit des mosquées, établit des garnisons et y laisse des missionnaires, puis remonte vers le nord jusque Ghadamès, où il est rejoint par 10 000 cavaliers que lui à envoyé Muawiya pour l’aider dans sa nouvelle mission et plusieurs milliers de Berbères prosélyte de la tribu des Luwata[6]. [49] The first and second stories are surmounted by rounded merlons which are pierced by arrowslits. Historiquement, a ville de Kairouan est a première métropole du Maghreb dont l‘apogée sur les plans politiques et intellectuels se situe au 9ème siècle, elle est réputée comme étant le centre spirituel et religieux de la Tunisie. Façons de découvrir Grande Mosquée de Kairouan. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. Contrairement à la plupart des autres mosquées ses dimensions ne sont pas régulières. [13] Despite the austere façades, the rhythmic patterns of buttresses and towering porches, some surmounted by cupolas, give the sanctuary a sense of striking sober grandeur. Au retour de cette expédition, il est tué dans les Aurès lors d'une embuscade tendue par une coalition berbère et byzantine, menée par le chef berbère, Koceïla. Concernant le Minaret, est une tour de forme carrée dont la base mesure 10.5 mètres de côté et se constitue de 3 niveau dégressif, le dernier étant coiffé d’une coupole. page 404, Henri Saladin, Tunis et Kairouan, [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. »[22]. Les premiers raids musulmans en Ifriqiya (actuelle Tunisie) ont lieu en 647[3]. Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides ». [11] This location corresponded originally to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is a singular monument, northern foothills, where he established his troupes Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. camp”- al qayrawan - on the edge of the …. Découvrez ce qu'en pensent les voyageurs : À faire près de Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Excursion d’une journée à Kairouan et à El Jem au départ de Tunis, Visite privée d'une journée, amphithéâtre Kairaouan et El Djem. [61] They cross with right angle in front of the mihrab, this device, named "T shape", which is also found in two Iraqi mosques in Samarra (around 847) has been adopted in many North African and Andalusian mosques where it became a feature. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Door of the minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Association des anciens de la mosquée Zitouna photo2 جمعية قدماء جامع الزيتونة.jpg, Cimitiere avec minaret grande mosque'e.JPG, Cour de la grande Mosquée de Kairouan 09, juin 2013.jpg, Cour de la grande Mosquée de Kairouan 10, juin 2013.jpg, Cour et minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, 1880.png, Cour et minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan.jpg, Cours intérieure de la grande mosquée de Kairouen.JPG, Courtyard and minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia.jpg, Courtyard of the Great Mosque of Kairouan - cour de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan.jpg, Courtyard of the Great Mosque Okba of Kairouan.jpg, ETH-BIB-Gr. [25] In 875 Emir Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard which was further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries., Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Portail:Religions et croyances/Articles liés, Portail:Biographie/Articles liés/Militaire, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. The horizontal sundial located in the courtyard, One of the courtyard's capitals surmounted by a small vertical sundial, Detail of arches and columns of the north portico of the courtyard, View of the impluvium which collects the rainwater and feeds the underground cistern, The minaret, which occupies the centre of the northern façade of the complex's enclosure, is 31.5 metres tall and is seated on a square base of 10.7 metres on each side. In the courtyard there are also several water wells some of which are placed side by side. Les étés …, La Tunisie c’est une terre aux atouts touristiques très divers. selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. En 681, il réalise une expédition[note 2], partant de Kairouan, atteignant l'océan Atlantique, et marchant jusqu'au rivières de Drâa et Souss (toutefois, l'étude critique des textes montre que cette expédition n'a pas dû dépasser la vallée du Chelif, et que la mer devant laquelle Oqba prend Dieu à témoin de ne pouvoir avancer au-delà ne serait que la Méditerranée[5])[7]. Lune de miel sur le sol tunisien, entre découvertes et dépaysement, Top 5 des plus grands Aquaparcs d’hôtels en Tunisie, Découvrir la Tunisie et toute sa splendeur à travers ses magnifiques villes, Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. Ayant ainsi créé une base de départ et doté la nouvelle province d’une capitale, Oqba commence à préparer ses futures opérations, mais il est destitué en 675. The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. [51], The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret. Nom complet : ʿOqba ibn Nāfiʿ ibn ʿAbd al-Qais al-Qurašī al-Fihrī'. The dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. This dome, whose construction goes back to the first half of the ninth century (towards 836), is one of the oldest and most remarkable domes in the western Islamic world. [60] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[74]. Un monument singulier, cette Grande Mosquée de Kairouan dont la parfaite harmonie cache à la perfection un « synchrétisme » architectural unique dans son genre. Among the finest works of this series, the pages of the Blue Qur'an, currently exhibited at Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art, from a famous Qur'an in the second half of the fourth century of the Hegira (the tenth century) most of which is preserved in Tunisia and the rest scattered in museums and private collections worldwide. Linda Kay Davidson and David Martin Gitlitz, Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Coupole du mihrab de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). For all these reasons, the mosque which once occupied the center of the medina when first built in 670 is now on the easternmost quarter abutting the city walls. after being remodelled several times, took on Poser une question à Aymen_juve à propos de Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, En rapport avec des éléments que vous avez consultés. Ce camp, dans la ligne de confrontation entre Byzantins et Musulmans et utilisé comme base de ses opérations, a rapidement donné naissance à la ville de Kairouan, qui fait actuellement partie de la Tunisie[7]. materials used for its construction all came from Il est le neveu d'Amr ibn al-As et est souvent surnommé al-Fihri en référence aux Fihrides, un clan lié aux Quraych. Other scrolls and calligraphic Qur'ans, as that known as the Hadinah's Qur'an, copied and illuminated by the calligrapher Ali ibn Ahmad al-Warraq for the governess of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis at about 1020 AD, were also in the library before being transferred to Raqqada museum. The niche of the mihrab is two metres long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep. [78], The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. The following 200 files are in this category, out of 248 total. [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Toutefois, Oqba assurera l'occupation permanente[5] à travers les déserts égyptiens et la création de postes militaires à intervalles réguliers le long de son itinéraire. having chosen the location of the “military As for its internal decoration, it can be termed These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylised flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series: one polychrome characterised by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold. [62], The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[63] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. [22][23] At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome was raised on squinches. In 836, Emir Ziyadat Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more:[21] this is when the building acquired, at least in its entirety, its current appearance. l’une des principales mosquées de Tunisie, est considérée comme le plus ancien et le plus prestigieux monument musulman au Maghreb. Il commence par attaquer les dernières places fortes byzantines situées entre Gabès et l’endroit où il avait décidé de créer une base militaire et d’installer le centre politique (miṣr) de sa province. Editions Henri Laurens, The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. À Kairouan, Oqba ordonne la construction du siège du gouvernement et à côté sa Grande Mosquée, la plus ancienne du Maghreb et un des monuments les plus représentatifs de l'art et de l'architecture musulmane [7]. From the library of the mosque comes a large collection of calligraphic scrolls and manuscripts, the oldest dating back to the second half of the ninth century. Le Mihrâb est coiffé d’une belle coupole. [58][76] The niches are covered with carved stone panels, finely adorned with characteristic geometric, vegetal and floral patterns of the Aghlabid decorative repertoire: shells, cusped arches, rosettes, vine-leaf, etc. Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. découverte avec un guide officiel, ce fut un enchantement, meme si l'on regrette l'impossibilité d'entrer en salle de prière pour les non musulmans. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences. This is undoubtedly the most ancient Islamic C’est le plus ancien édifice religieux islamique érigé dans l’Occident musulman. It forms an original [17] During this expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages. Ces premières incursions musulmanes dans les territoires byzantins d'Afrique n'impliquent pas une occupation permanente, les troupes retournant dans leurs bases égyptiennes. Le tout forme un ensemble original aux traits sobres mais non dépourvus d’élégance. Most of the works on which rests the reputation of the mosque are still conserved in situ while a certain number of them have joined the collections of the Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art; Raqqada is located about ten kilometres southwest of Kairouan. Il prend partout soin d’assurer l’autorité de l’Islam. Mosquée Okba Ibn Nafaa : Prière de l'absent pour les militaires tués à Jebel Chaambi . This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. Oqba commence sa première campagne en occupant le Fezzan en 663, puis l'Ifriqiya, dont le gouvernement lui a été confié par le calife omeyyade en 666[4]. Near its centre is an horizontal sundial, bearing an inscription in naskhi engraved on the marble dating from 1258 AH (which corresponds to the year 1843) and which is accessed by a little staircase; it determines the time of prayers. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. modifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata. [90], Coordinates: 35°40′53″N 10°06′14″E / 35.68139°N 10.10389°E / 35.68139; 10.10389, Wilfrid Knapp and Nevill Barbour, North West Africa : a political and economic survey, On ne sait pas si cette expédition s'apparentait à une mission de reconnaissance, ou une razzia. [48] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD. the direction of Mecca, or carved on the precious [67] The other doors of the prayer hall, some of which date from the time of the Hafsids,[68] are distinguished by their decoration which consists essentially of geometric patterns (hexagonal, octagonal, rectangular patterns, etc.). The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. 1–38, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, Great Mosque of Kairouan (, Great Mosque of Kairouan – Kairouan, Tunisia, The Great Mosque ( [85], The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration. floral motifs carved in fine marble decorates Il est connu pour avoir mené la conquête musulmane du Maghreb à partir de 670. During this period, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was both a place of prayer and a centre for teaching Islamic sciences under the Maliki current. [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. Je n'ai pas souhaité quitter ce lieu saint de l'islam, mais il fallait repartir.Seul problème, il y'a beaucoup de parasites autour de la mosquée qui s'improvisent guides touristiques alors qu'ils sont incultes. S’agissant de la décoration intérieure, il faut parler d’exubérance : une véritable explosion de motifs géométriques et floraux taillés dans le marbre fin qui décorent la façade du « Mihrâb », la niche qui indique la direction de la Mecque, ou gravés dans les panneaux de bois précieux qui composent le « Minbar ». 69–77. Thus, the mosque, headquarters of a prestigious university with a large library containing a large number of scientific and theological works, was the most remarkable intellectual and cultural centre in North Africa during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries. The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble. built in 670 during the first campaign to annex It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. La grande mosquée de Kairouan est tres interessante à visiter. D'après le récit d'Ibn Khaldoun, « ce fut Kahina qui poussa les Berbères de Tehouda à tuer Oqba Ibn Nafi pendant qu’il traversait la plaine qui s’étend au midi de l'Aurès »[10]. [85] Its main adornment is a frieze that crowns calligraphy, the latter surmounted by a line of pointed openwork merlons, features an inscription in flowery kufic character carved on the background of interlacing plants. whole, its sober features not lacking in elegance. pulpit. [60], View of the gallery which precedes the prayer hall, One of the seventeen carved-wood doors of the prayer hall, Close view of the upper part of the main door of the prayer hall, View of the central nave of the prayer hall, View of two of the secondary naves of the prayer hall, View of the mihrab located in the middle of the qibla wall of the prayer hall, In the prayer hall, the 414 columns of marble, granite or porphyry[69] (among more than 500 columns in the whole mosque),[70] taken from ancient sites in the country such as Sbeitla, Carthage, Hadrumetum and Chemtou,[60] support the horseshoe arches.

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